History of Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs)
Short Description: Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCSs) have played a major role in the USA. Learn its history and importance here.
The United States of America has several colleges and universities across the country. There are schools focused on engineering, agriculture and technology, liberal arts, and several other specializations.
However, education in the country was not always as diverse and accessible as it is today. Once, minorities struggled to receive educational opportunities, giving birth to alternative learning methods. One such alternative to education became HBCUs.
HBCU stands for Historically Black Colleges and Universities. The Higher Education Act of 1965 that increased federal funding for universities and colleges coined the term HBCU.
HBCUs have played an important role in the African American community as institutions providing these students the opportunity to obtain higher education when no other college would. HBCUs are higher educational institutions that were established to provide education to African American students in the United States.
History of HBCUs
Before the Civil War, higher education for black people was almost non-existing. Newly freed slaves were being denied admission to traditional higher education colleges and universities. Individuals who managed to receive some education, such as Fredrick Douglass, regularly studied in lesser desirable and dangerous environments, while others had to resort to teaching themselves whatever they could.
Why Did the US Need HBCUs?
Historically Black Colleges and Universities were established to provide higher education to disenfranchised Black Americans in the US, who were initially prohibited from attending traditional American colleges and universities.
Richard Humphreys founded the first HBCU, Cheyney University of Pennsylvania. During the times of slavery and segregation, most colleges and universities prohibited access to black Americans.
Under the Higher Education Act of 1965, HBCUs that were established and accredited before 1964 were officially declared as institutions of higher learning. The act also allocated federal financial assistance to these institutions. These institutions became responsible for the Black middle class constituting lawyers, doctors, engineers, teachers, and other professionals. HBCUs continued to harvest Black professionals, leaders, and celebrities.
Today, the two oldest medical HBCUs – Meharry Medical College and Howard University – are sources of more than 80% of the African American physicians and dentists practicing in the country.
How Did It All Start?
In 1764, when teen Richard Humphreys arrived in Philadelphia from the British Virgin Islands, he was disturbed by the conditions of African Americans in the country. Like most adherents to the Quaker principle, Humphrey opposed slavery and freely donated to abolitionist causes. He was convinced that education was the key to improving the lives of Black Americans.
At the age of 79, Humphreys modified his will, adding a bequeathment for the establishment of schools to instruct descendants of the African American race in various branches of agriculture, mechanics, arts, and trades to prepare and qualify them to work as teachers.
Humphreys passed away three years later, but his enormous philanthropic legacy continued. In 1837, 1/10 of his total estate, worth $10,000, was dedicated to developing the Institute for Colored Youth in Philadelphia. The institute was the first to provide higher education to African Americans.
In 1904, the school was relocated to a farm owned by George Cheney, around 40 miles outside of Philadelphia. The institution was renamed as Cheney University and began to grant degrees to African American students. Today, Cheney University is the oldest African American institute, which is still operational.
Just as Richard Humphrey envisioned while making last-minute edits to his will, these educational institutions played a major role in helping African Americans get access to higher education, dismantling the difficulties for freedom.
There are several institutions founded after 1964 with rostering student bodies mostly comprising of people of color. These are not considered “historically’ Black colleges.
Although education in the HBCUs is open to students of all races, the need for designation of HBCUs can be traced back to American history in which African American students were denied access to traditional American colleges and universities. These institutions arose out of necessity and were the only resort Black Americans had to receive higher education or attain graduate and undergraduate degrees for many years.
Hence, these colleges and universities can be considered symbolic of the segregation and the slavery era of American history.
The Second Morrill Land Act
In 1890, the Second Morrill Land-Grant Act stated that the states that wanted to use the federal land-grant funds had to make their schools and colleges open for Blacks and Whites or the funds should be given to segregated Black colleges to operate properly as a substitute to White schools.
Sixteen Black educational institutions were given 1890 land-grant funds. At this point, several HBCUs were already established, including Cheyney University of Pennsylvania, Harris-Stowe University, University of the District of Columbia, and Howard University. However, the Second Morrill Land-Grant Act opened the doors for many HBCUs to establish with government funding.
Why Are HBCUs Still Relevant?
While the initial mission of these institutions was to educate side-lined and segregated African Americans, today, these institutions are comprised of students from all demographics. Currently, one-fourth of the total students enrolled in the HBCUs are of non-Black ethnicity.
Still, HBCUs are considered as the best option for African American students to get higher education. Many students at Howard University say that HBCUs are among the very few institutions that have surpassed racism, which is still prevalent in society. HBCU supporters say these institutions are not only important for African American students but also for the whole society.
A White student from Howard, Mark McCluskey, says he was considered a minority for the first time in his life but shares the sentiments of his peers about the value of preserving HBCUs. These institutions are relevant in the current society because they can spread knowledge about various cultures that the country has ignored over the past two centuries.
HBCUs serve society as an environment that encourages belonging, empowerment, and a sense of Black determination that African Americans often struggled to achieve in the US. This was particularly true during the abolition of slavery period to the Civil Rights outlawing segregation in all forms.
It will not be wrong to say that the importance of Historically Black Colleges and Universities is still as great as it was since their inception.
Is Marijuana a CNS Depressant?
Marijuana is a drug that people often use recreationally and also call it to weed. However, some even use it for medicinal purposes to cope with symptoms of chronic conditions. It can have depressant effects, but it is not a depressant. Also, it can act as a hallucinogen or stimulant.
It contains delta-9- Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), a psychoactive chemical that alters the mental state of the person who uses marijuana. Consuming, vaping, or smoking weed or marijuana can affect each person differently. It can have a strong depressant effect for many and may not on others. Different strains and types of plants can have a different effect on the mind and body.
When a person uses marijuana, his stomach and lungs absorb THC in the bloodstream. This absorbed THC moves to the brain and other parts of the body. When it reaches the brain, it acts on brain cell receptors causing stimulant, hallucinogenic, and depressant effects.
Marijuana or hemp is similar to alcohol as it contains both depressant and stimulant properties, as suggested by the National Institutes of Health in a publication. The side effects of marijuana begin quickly and also last longer than alcohol.
Many of the cannabinoids present in marijuana can cause side effects, just like depressants. The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) and Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) has categorized marijuana as a psychoactive drug, with hallucinogen effects. Hence, marijuana is used widely across the globe as a powerful hallucinogen, according to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention.
What are Psychoactive Drugs?
A psychoactive drug is a substance that has the potential to change the brain functions of a person. This type of mind-altering or recreational drug can lead to shifts in mood, perception, level of awareness, consciousness, and cognitive behavior or functioning.
Regular marijuana consumption, especially higher doses, can cause unpleasant thoughts, disorientation, feelings of paranoia, or anxiety. It can affect emotions, attention, learning ability, coordination, decision-making, memory, and reaction time of a person.
Excessive usage can also interfere with work, daily functioning, relationship, and other regular activities. As these psychoactive substances are rewarding and have potential drug abuse, they can reinforce drug-seeking behaviors in the consumers, which can lead to addiction and dependence on these products.
What are CNS Depressants?
CNS Depressants are substances that can slow or depress the central nervous system of a person. The Central Nervous system consists of the spinal cord and brain. The system is a complex network of nerves and neurons, which send messages or signals to all the parts of the body.
CNS Depressants slow down the rate of regular activities occurring in the spinal cord and brain by slowing or depressing the rate at which the nerves of the body sends the signal. Depressants increase the amount of neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the body, which hampers the transmission of signals in the nervous system.
Sleep medications, benzodiazepines, and barbiturates are three common types of CNS depressant drugs. Prescription drugs like Valium and Xanax are used for the treatment of medical conditions like insomnia, anxiety, and seizures. Generally, these medications are safe and effective only when used as per prescription and for appropriate medical conditions.
Even though marijuana can cause effects similar to CNS depressants, it cannot be considered as a CNS depressant. The main reason for the sedative effect of marijuana is its ability to increase the level of dopamine in the body. However, marijuana doesn’t affect the level of neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid in the body.
A study conducted in the year 2016 has clearly indicated that the initial use of marijuana can increase the levels of dopamine in the body. However, long-term use of the drug can affect the level of neurotransmitter release. When the level of dopamine in the body goes down to normal, the user may experience low energy and lethargy. On the other hand, consistent use of the drug can cause the effects of CNS depressants.
Risks associated with CNS Depressants
Risks of CNS depressants include addiction and dependence. When depressant is misused or taken for long-term, the risks associated are even higher. Consuming CNS depressants to achieve a high can cause dangerous and severe side effects.
When consumers combine these drugs with other substances, it can lead to CNS depression or sleepiness. Overdose can result in a significant slowdown of breathing and heart rate of a person, which in turn can lead to deadly consequences that need emergency medical attention.
Depression and Marijuana
Specific evidence for the role of marijuana in causing depression is lacking. There is only limited research on the drug due to its classification into the Schedule I category. However, some studies have shown that marijuana’s high dose can aggravate depression. People who are suffering from depression may use weed or marijuana to numb or lighten the negative feelings. Similarly, people who use marijuana may feel depressed due to the CNS depressant effects of marijuana.
The CNS depressant effect of marijuana includes:
- The lesser feeling of anxiousness
- Aiding sleep
- Reducing insomnia
However, with long term use and overdose of marijuana, a person can experience side effects like:
- Slurred speech
- Memory problems
- Slow breathing
- Poor concentration levels
- Loss of interest
- Dependency and addiction to marijuana
It needs to be noted that the classification of a drug as a CNS depressant is different from the potential effect of the drug on depression. A drug that can depress the central nervous system of your body doesn’t cause depression symptoms like insomnia, loss of interest, or sadness unless the drug is used chronically for an extended duration.
Marijuana to treat Depression
Recent studies have shown that controlled use of marijuana or medicinal products derived from marijuana can help relieve symptoms of depression. The studies have shown the correlation between marijuana and depression depends directly on the amount and duration of use.
In 2014, the Journal of Psychoactive Drugs had published clinical research that showed the use of marijuana is associated with reduced symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. The research showed that, on average, 75 percent of symptoms of PTSD were reduced with effective use of marijuana. However, scientists feel that there is a need for more research to account for variables.
Cannabis Universities Research: How does it help?
Cannabis is an important subject to initiate a strong debate among researchers, policymakers, scientists, doctors, and the public. There is a consistent debate on the safety and legal status of medical marijuana. Researchers, government, and users have different questions about their uses.
Marijuana is legal in almost 29 states of the USA, along with Washington, DC. From the perspective of the federal government, this drug is illegal. In the landscape of research, cannabis is a complicated drug.
Research on cannabis shows its benefits for patients with chronic pain, cancer, and anxiety. The U.S. research may remain bottlenecked because of the restrictions on the Sativa plant. To find out the effects of cannabis, research is continued in different universities. Here are some significant research findings.
Least Controversial Extract
CBD aka cannabidiol is the least controversial extract from the hemp plant. This component has limited intoxicating properties. Remember, marijuana has over 100 active compounds, including tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).
Keep it in mind that THC chemicals can make you high. Strains with CBD dominance may have no THC or little THC. For this reason, patients may report minor alternation in consciousness. Patients may report several advantages of CBD, such as relieving anxiety, spasticity, insomnia, and treating life-threatening conditions.
Remember, epilepsy is a dangerous condition, but marijuana strain with CBD can dramatically improve this disease. The cannabis research universities investigate the possible impacts of CBD for smoking cessation.
Beckley Foundation is analyzing the terpene, flavonoid, and cannabinoid content on cannabis strains. They are trying to produce new medicines to optimize particular health conditions. University College London is using advanced brain-imaging technology.
With this technology, they are comparing the effects of cannabis strains, such as low CBD and high THC content. Research of London King College revealed anti-psychotic and anti-anxiety properties of CBD.
Proven Health Benefits of Cannabidiol
CBD is famous for different health issues but has strong scientific evidence for its efficiency in the treatment of cruelest epilepsy childhood syndromes. These syndromes include LGS (Lennox-Gastaut syndrome) and Dravet Syndrome. Patients of these syndromes may not respond to anti-seizure drugs.
Several studies prove that CBD can decrease seizures and stop them. Epidiolex is an FDA approved medicine containing CBD. Remember, the use of cannabis is common to treat anxiety, insomnia, and other diseases. No doubt, CBD has properties to improve your sleep.
The uses of CBD are common for the treatment of chronic pain. After applying CBD on your skin, you can decrease inflammation and pain of arthritis. With a special mechanism, CBD can inhibit neuropathic and inflammatory pain. Keep it in mind that these two pains are tough to treat.
Research on the Safety of Cannabidiol
The benefits of cannabidiol don’t mean it is free from side effects. The common harmful effects of this herb are irritability, fatigue, and nausea. CBD may increase the Coumadin (blood thinner) in your body. It may increase the level of a particular medicine in your blood.
The major safety concern about CBD is its sale as a supplement. It is not available as an FDA-approved medicine. Unfortunately, FDA is not regulating the purity and safety of the dietary supplement. In this situation, it is difficult to find out if your product has active ingredients.
Medical Cannabis Research and Education Course
The University of Colorado has launched a cannabis education program in the supervision of Professor Kent Hutchison. Interested people can take this course through their official website. Fortunately, the education and research center of C.U. is a multidisciplinary and rigorous center.
They are famous for developing evidence-based knowledge for cannabis. This research will offer empirical data to improve the lives of people suffering from different diseases. Their diverse center faculty examines the impacts of cannabis at the behavioral, dynamic social system, neutral, molecular, and genetic levels.
These types of courses focus on pain management approaches and the role of cannabis on the opiate epidemic. It is crucial to study the impact of hemp use on PTSD individuals or several other psychological disorders.
In short, a few manufacturers of CBD face government scrutiny for indefensible wild claims. They claim that CBD can completely cure cancer. This claim is invalid because researchers are working on the properties of this plant.
If you want to use CBD for any underlying condition, make sure to consult your doctor. It can save you from possible troubles.
What You Need To Know About Hemp Extraction
Did you know that Cannabidiol or CBD is one of the fastest-growing industries around the world? Many companies are engaged in the production, manufacture, and distribution of CBD. As such, it is not a surprise why there is also an increasing number of lands dedicated to growing cannabis plants. It is essential to note that most CBD products are primarily sourced from hemp.
In this article, we are going to talk about the basic things that you need to know about hemp extraction. Take note that there is a need to understand the different processes involved in extracting CBD oil, which has become an in-demand product in various marketplaces. As a consumer, it is crucial to know more about hemp extraction so that you will become better when it comes to selecting the right product for you based on the compliance on certain procedures.
Hemp: CBD Oil Extractions
Before anything else, you must first learn that hemp is different from marijuana. As such, these terms must not be used interchangeably to avoid confusion from the public. The importance of this distinction is with respect to the classification of hemp as excluded from the prohibited substances under the law. It means that hemp extraction is absolutely legal and does not violate any substantive law. Hemp has less THC, making it an ideal source for CBD oil extraction.
Nonetheless, there is a necessity to emphasize that for hemp to be considered as legal under the existing laws, it must contain less than 0.3% THC. Otherwise, its extraction may be punishable under the law. Another thing to keep in mind is the fact that hemp products come in different forms. You can buy hemp seed and hemp seed oil in various supermarkets or stores anywhere in the states. However, these items are way different from hemp oil extract, which contains cannabidiol.
Benefits of Hemp Extract
As you probably know by now, hemp extract is taken from the part of the hemp plant that has a high level of cannabidiol considerably. There are several known benefits for the hemp extract. Take note that hemp extract is synonymous with CBD oil. It must not also be confused with hemp seed oil.
Many athletes prefer to use CBD oil due to its anti-inflammatory benefits. For people who are constantly engaged in sports and other physical tendencies, they tend to feel exhausted most of the time and may suffer from sore muscles. They may also be exposed to the risk of experiencing joint pains. With the help of CBD oil, all these medical complications are minimized or eliminated.
Chronic pain, which may last not only for more than six months to one year but even for a longer period, can also be reduced with the use of CBD oil. This fact has already been proven in recent medical case studies conducted as early as 2012 by the Journal of Experimental Medicine.
There is also a growing number of CBD oil or hemp extract users who claim that they have experienced low levels of anxiety since they started using the product. This only goes to show that the product is also effective in treating multiple anxiety disorders. However, it must be noted that just like any form of medications available, the CBD oil or hemp extract must be used moderately.
Understanding Hemp Extraction
There are three essential things that you need to consider when it comes to hemp extraction.
First of all, the equipment used must be designed primarily for the process of extracting CBD oil from the hemp plant. Second, the facility where the equipment is placed must also be capable of processing and handling the extraction solvent. Take note that the solvent may be exposed to contamination. Third, the final product must be safe for human consumption.
Because of all these, it is crucial to choose the best supplier or manufacturer of CBD oil products in the market. Make a conscious effort to verify the details as to how the end product was extracted. Be a responsible user of CBD oil products to ensure that you will not experience any inconvenience or problem along the way. It is also best to consult with a medical professional.