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History of Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs)



Short Description: Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCSs) have played a major role in the USA. Learn its history and importance here.


The United States of America has several colleges and universities across the country. There are schools focused on engineering, agriculture and technology, liberal arts, and several other specializations. 

However, education in the country was not always as diverse and accessible as it is today. Once, minorities struggled to receive educational opportunities, giving birth to alternative learning methods. One such alternative to education became HBCUs.

HBCU stands for Historically Black Colleges and Universities. The Higher Education Act of 1965 that increased federal funding for universities and colleges coined the term HBCU. 

HBCUs have played an important role in the African American community as institutions providing these students the opportunity to obtain higher education when no other college would. HBCUs are higher educational institutions that were established to provide education to African American students in the United States. 

History of HBCUs

Before the Civil War, higher education for black people was almost non-existing. Newly freed slaves were being denied admission to traditional higher education colleges and universities. Individuals who managed to receive some education, such as Fredrick Douglass, regularly studied in lesser desirable and dangerous environments, while others had to resort to teaching themselves whatever they could. 

Why Did the US Need HBCUs?

Historically Black Colleges and Universities were established to provide higher education to disenfranchised Black Americans in the US, who were initially prohibited from attending traditional American colleges and universities. 

Richard Humphreys founded the first HBCU, Cheyney University of Pennsylvania. During the times of slavery and segregation, most colleges and universities prohibited access to black Americans. 

Under the Higher Education Act of 1965, HBCUs that were established and accredited before 1964 were officially declared as institutions of higher learning. The act also allocated federal financial assistance to these institutions. These institutions became responsible for the Black middle class constituting lawyers, doctors, engineers, teachers, and other professionals. HBCUs continued to harvest Black professionals, leaders, and celebrities. 

Today, the two oldest medical HBCUs – Meharry Medical College and Howard University – are sources of more than 80% of the African American physicians and dentists practicing in the country. 

How Did It All Start?

In 1764, when teen Richard Humphreys arrived in Philadelphia from the British Virgin Islands, he was disturbed by the conditions of African Americans in the country. Like most adherents to the Quaker principle, Humphrey opposed slavery and freely donated to abolitionist causes. He was convinced that education was the key to improving the lives of Black Americans. 

At the age of 79, Humphreys modified his will, adding a bequeathment for the establishment of schools to instruct descendants of the African American race in various branches of agriculture, mechanics, arts, and trades to prepare and qualify them to work as teachers. 

Humphreys passed away three years later, but his enormous philanthropic legacy continued. In 1837, 1/10 of his total estate, worth $10,000, was dedicated to developing the Institute for Colored Youth in Philadelphia. The institute was the first to provide higher education to African Americans. 

In 1904, the school was relocated to a farm owned by George Cheney, around 40 miles outside of Philadelphia. The institution was renamed as Cheney University and began to grant degrees to African American students. Today, Cheney University is the oldest African American institute, which is still operational.  

Just as Richard Humphrey envisioned while making last-minute edits to his will, these educational institutions played a major role in helping African Americans get access to higher education, dismantling the difficulties for freedom. 

There are several institutions founded after 1964 with rostering student bodies mostly comprising of people of color. These are not considered “historically’ Black colleges. 

Although education in the HBCUs is open to students of all races, the need for designation of HBCUs can be traced back to American history in which African American students were denied access to traditional American colleges and universities. These institutions arose out of necessity and were the only resort Black Americans had to receive higher education or attain graduate and undergraduate degrees for many years. 

Hence, these colleges and universities can be considered symbolic of the segregation and the slavery era of American history.  

The Second Morrill Land Act

In 1890, the Second Morrill Land-Grant Act stated that the states that wanted to use the federal land-grant funds had to make their schools and colleges open for Blacks and Whites or the funds should be given to segregated Black colleges to operate properly as a substitute to White schools. 

Sixteen Black educational institutions were given 1890 land-grant funds. At this point, several HBCUs were already established, including Cheyney University of Pennsylvania, Harris-Stowe University, University of the District of Columbia, and Howard University. However, the Second Morrill Land-Grant Act opened the doors for many HBCUs to establish with government funding. 

Why Are HBCUs Still Relevant?

While the initial mission of these institutions was to educate side-lined and segregated African Americans, today, these institutions are comprised of students from all demographics. Currently, one-fourth of the total students enrolled in the HBCUs are of non-Black ethnicity. 

Still, HBCUs are considered as the best option for African American students to get higher education. Many students at Howard University say that HBCUs are among the very few institutions that have surpassed racism, which is still prevalent in society. HBCU supporters say these institutions are not only important for African American students but also for the whole society. 

A White student from Howard, Mark McCluskey, says he was considered a minority for the first time in his life but shares the sentiments of his peers about the value of preserving HBCUs. These institutions are relevant in the current society because they can spread knowledge about various cultures that the country has ignored over the past two centuries. 

HBCUs serve society as an environment that encourages belonging, empowerment, and a sense of Black determination that African Americans often struggled to achieve in the US. This was particularly true during the abolition of slavery period to the Civil Rights outlawing segregation in all forms. 

It will not be wrong to say that the importance of Historically Black Colleges and Universities is still as great as it was since their inception.


Herb: Explore the Superb Collection of Cannabis Products



 Herb is one of the top-notch cannabis brands in the USA and is transforming the way cannabis products are seen. The debate surrounding cannabis is endless, yet herb has become one of the major benefactors of CBD products in the USA. With its natural, efficient, and environment friendly collection of cannabis products, it can be named “the paradises of cannabis”. 

From original cannabis flowers to CBD capsules, the firm provides all sorts of cannabis products. Even the recipes available on their site are scrumptious enough to make your meals special and rejuvenating. 

So, how did this paradise of CBD came to existence? Let’s dive into its past:

Founded in 2014 by Matt Gray, Herb is all about eradicating the speculation surrounding cannabis. Back then it was impossible to find any cannabis recipe other than weed brownie. Being a cannabis fan, Matt began his search for new recipes. 

The work started in his garage. In the beginning, it was just a place for finding great recipes, but people wanted more. Consumers often complained about not getting the right ingredients to complete the recipes. To meet the demand Matt established “Herb” and within a few years, it was the favorite destination of cannabis lovers. 

Matt believed that cannabis was sinking under the cultural and historical disbelief, and it was time people start benefiting from it. He believes that cannabis can change a million lives with its therapeutic nature.  

Herb has helped put the scare behind cannabis to the ground and simplified the process of finding the right product. With more than 14 million consumers, the company is putting the myths associated with Cannabis to bed. The very proof of the fact is – the 265 million viewers available for their videos. Right now, the company is aiming to provide cannabis anywhere in the world within 15 minutes. 

Looking for Cannabis induced supplements and pills to put an end to your daily woes? One of the best places to get 100% natural and tested cannabis product is The website opens with a beautiful quote “Herb is Cannabis for You, near you.” Roll down to see a variety of cannabis products including CBD oil, THC Oil Sativa drops CBD capsules, pre-rolls, vape pens, and even fresh cannabis flowers. 

Rest assured the company provides only naturally grown and environment-friendly cannabis products. Obtain it in any form and you won’t have to worry about its efficiency and originality. 

Such vast array of CBD products have helped meet consumers’ demand. One can also get regular updates about cannabis and the laws related to it right at the websites. The information mentioned there has been helping people understand the existing laws and their particular rights. 

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The Other Face of Cannabis



The cannabis plant is not just confined to marijuana which is rich in THC chemical compound that gives you the psychoactive “high” feelings. There is another breed of this plant which is known as hemp. There are numerous varieties of chemical compounds present in the cannabis plant most of which are still undiscovered. However, the chemical compound CBD is proved to be beneficial in many aspects in recent years. Hemp is rich in CBD and contains less than 0.3% THC. CBD does not give your brain the psychoactive rush at all. And so, this area, grabs researchers’ attention the most and has also opened booming opportunities for using hemp in various products such as makeup, food supplements and even medicine.

Hemp in Makeup.

Our prime object of discussion today is using hemp in makeup products. Yes, it has been legalized to make industrialized use of cannabis plants in the hemp form in the majority of states. Its use in cosmetics has lesser restrictions in most countries than that of restriction on hemp or CBD infused products in foods or supplements or medicines. 

Not only has the use of hemp in cosmetics become legalized but it has also become fan-favorite of many consumers making the emergence of hemp-line cosmetic industries more widespread by the day. Popular brands such as NYX and Body Shop has launched hemp-infused beauty products and is continuing to expand in doing so. 

The reason for hemp cosmetics is becoming so popular is because of its evident benefits. It has been clinically proved for hemp to be rich in vitamins A and C and E. The hemp seed oils are also enriched balanced and high essential fatty acid oils that are soothing to the skin with skin rejuvenating properties. That is why this particular extract is increasingly being used in lotions, body washes, lip balms, shampoos, conditioners and even in massage oils.  The oil also contains the rare gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) which can be used in sunscreen for its effective UV protection properties. It is also rich in amino acid and multiple antioxidant components. As a result, hemp-based products work excellently for people with sensitive skin. It also acts as an effective skin-soothing component against burns, itches, rashes or allergies. 

Hemp seed oils have also become popular for being used in makeup products such as lipstick, mascara, highlighters, etc. it has grabbed considerable consumer attention firstly because of its newness and secondly because of the benefits imposed by it on the skin making you look both pretty and taking care of your skin at the same time. 

It is however a common misconception held by many on the ethics regarding usage of cannabis-infused makeup and beauty products. But the more scientific research is made on this, the more logics are being made against such ethical misconceptions. Hence, these products are being made and used increasingly in the market.

Top ten beauty lines to use hemp in beauty products.

Congress is many countries that have passed a bill on the legalization of industrial hemp production that is high in CBD and has significantly low THC content. At the same time, the restriction on hemp-infused products is more lenient when it comes to cosmetics. And so, within the US alone there has been the establishment of companies such as Dr. Bronner’s, Hippie Butter, Skinvisible Pharmaceuticals, CannaSkin, etc. the aforementioned companies manufacture products that are sole of the cannabis-line including makeup products as well as skincare ones. They are becoming signature products with time because of clinically proved benefits that have also been ensured by consumers. 

Other existing companies such as L’oreal, Body Shop, Lush and NYX also introduced cannabis-infused products. 

Lush introduced an organic hair treatment formula infused with hemp oil. Maison Margiela made a unique toilette that has the essence of cannabis in it. Milk Makeup brought a revolutionary Kush High Volume Mascara that is derived from hemp seed oil which is reputed to boost your eyelashes and also improve the growth of your lashes while ensuring you have the perfect fresh eye look. This product has become so popular that many would use this new product over their regularly used ones. Body Shop has brought about its best-selling hand cream with antibacterial properties because of the hemp oil essence in it. This product is sold every nine seconds around the globe. Body Shop also launched other hemp-infused products such as essential oils, masks, face cream, etc. Popular beauty lines such as NYX launched separate hemp-infused product lines which consist of a face primer, lip balm, etc. the hemp-infused roll-on highlighter by Kaja has also become a popular product.

Due to legalization issues, such products are not widely available everywhere. However, these products have gained significant popularity in the states in which their use is legalized. The fact that such products are available in Sephora pretty much explains its validation. Even though medical use and benefits of CBD are still in question because of its possible side effects, such factors are out of the question when it comes to beauty products.

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Advances‌‌ in‌ ‌Biotechnological‌ ‌Approaches‌ ‌for‌ ‌Hemp‌ ‌Breeding



Hemp is one of the crops which can be used for many things. For instance, hemp can produce fiber, seeds and seed oil, cannabinoid, etc. Combining many industries that are connected to the agriculture sector, cannabis is seen as a crop model in which participation into particular biosynthetic operation and metabolic pathways are beneficial for the development of the plant.

Providing the most recent details on the applications and configuration of the plant progresses in Hemp Research provides cultivators, analysts, producers, and providers with techniques and information for the handling and development of hemp for textile and paper items. 

You can see that the latest developments in germplasm assets, breeding techniques, and the development of physiological and biochemical features of the plant can make hemp fiber stronger. Moreover, making it a beneficial and significant crop for research and to develop for applications in the paper and textile businesses.

Cannabis Breeding Practices

The breeders of cannabis regularly intentionally or unintentionally make use of breeding techniques, which results in the growth of heterosis (or hybrid vigor). The phenomenon of Heterosis is the result of crossing the different varieties of cannabis. Hybrid vigor is commonly a beneficial thing as due to hybrid vigor, plants can achieve speedy development and also achieve greater size. But, the drawback of this method is that unless attempts are made to make generally innate parents, the seeds of the new plant from a cross have significant genetic dissimilarities, starting with one seed then onto the next. 

Varieties of cannabis that have been produced in cultivation by selective breeding are named after the female parent now and then, without thinking about the male parent. This has resulted in cultivars with a similar name yet different genetics. Time and effort, which is required to grow a cultivar that comes true to the variety of parent seed in an acceptable way, are beyond the range of most cannabis breeders, but still, a few breeders have tried to do so. 

At last, we can say that cannabis breeders are continuously applying the latest cultivating practices. Due to this, a wide variety of cannabis strains that are accessible today are evidence of the efforts of hundreds of small scale cannabis breeders. A large number of people functioning on separate small scale cannabis breeding projects have made significant improvements as a whole.

Hemp New Varieties

Present-day hemp varieties used for drugs and other particular tasks have been created. To enhance the end products of hemp, new types are being produced. The outline for the development of breeding in hemp depends on research, which gives bits of knowledge to recognize a methodology. This is for the design of improved plants with increased production. This is achieved by selecting the specific traits into bits and the adjustment of single steps of the interconnected metabolic pathways. These developments are executed with the help of genomic strategies and can do the following things: 

(I) These types of hemp plants can recognize essential genes encoding regulatory factors taking part in cannabinoid, oil, and fiber biosynthesis.

(ii) These hybrids can also understand the method of the guideline of these genes.

(iii) These plants can identify the use of the chosen genes through lower, higher, or particular expressions given by specific promoters.

The recognizable proof of subatomic markers for particular attributes, accumulated in a saturated linkage map, will remarkably affect the process of hemp breeding. The development in the essential and applied study makes it conceivable to plan strategies for the distinguishing proof of superior parents. Moreover, this development in plants also helps in cross mixes and the improvement of selection plans that are less dependent on labor and are also much less time-consuming.

Latest Practices

Giving you a thorough update on the improvements in the study conducted in a few unique locations, this content covers the whole range of latest worldwide hemp research and innovative growth in this field. Advancements in Hemp Research talks about numerous components that are crucial for the development of the crop and its uses, comprising:

  • The breeding methods, agronomical exercises, increased pressure tolerance, and operating systems that will allow the plant to deliver top-notch fibers are vital components of the system.
  • The new cultivars are differentiating licit from illegal field development. 
  • The ongoing developments in crop physiology, for example, the emission of energy, uses productivity, harvest record, and dry matter yields. 
  • Farming exercises, for example, soil structure, manuring and crop cycling, are essential. Moreover, how these exercises contribute to ideal developing conditions for the plant is the key to getting high-quality crops.
  • The farmer also needs to practice control measures on diseases, which in turn reduces the harm to the cultivation and prevents loss of crops. 
  • Other practices like storing, processing, and selling hemp are involved, and then hemp is sold as paper, fiber, oil, and drug.

Expanding the advancement of cannabis as a functional and eco-friendly crop, this content provides you the data you require to grow much healthier and sturdy plants effectively. Development in the study of Hemp will surely profit your breeding practices or your business journey by giving you data and lab results. This will help you to develop the cannabis plant for business use effectively.

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